The Proceedings are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. For multiple copying for promotional or commercial purposes such as creating new collective works or resale, written permission from ISOPE is required.



The Proceedings of

the Third (1999) ISOPE


Goa, India, November 8-19, 1999


Environment, Exploration and Survey,

Mining Systems and Technology, and Processing


A single volume: 298 pp.

International Standard Book Number: ISBN 1-880653-45-1

Copyright 1999 by International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, Cupertino, California, USA. All Rights Reserved.



Foreword ..... iii
Acknowledgement ..... iv
Partial List of Reviewers ..... iv
Announcements and Publication Order Information ..... v


DEEP-OCEAN MINING - General and Review
Indian Polymetallic Nodule Program
A.E. Muthunayagam and S.K. Das ..... 1
Opportunities for Offshore Minerals Exploration in Indian Ocean
E. Desa ..... 6
Deep-Ocean Mining issues and Ocean Mining Working Group (OMWG)
Jin S. Chung ..... 14
Non-Linear Dynamic Response of Ocean Mining Pipe
P.R. Babu and Suhail Ahmad ..... 21
Effects of Internal Flow on Dynamics of Deep Seawater Risers
Koji Otsuka, Akiyoshi Bando and Yoshiho Ikeda ..... 30
A Proposal of the Deep Ocean Water Upwelling Machine Using Density Current
Kazuyuki Ouchi and Hiroyuki Nakahara ..... 36
An Experimental Study on the Flow Characteristics of Solid-Liquid Two Phase Mixture in a Vertical Tube
Chi Ho Yoon, In Kee Kim, Kwang Soo Kwon, Seok Ki Kwon, Jung Seock Kang, Ou Kwang Kwon and Chi Won Seo ..... 43
Deepsea Core Boring by BMS in Northern Mariana Area
Shigeru Sarata and Katsutoki Matsumoto ..... 49
Tracing Collector Passes and Preliminary Analysis of Collector Operation
Tetsuo Yamazaki, E. Kuboki and H. Yoshida ..... 55
Track-Keeping Control of Seafloor Miner by Successive Learning of Unknown Velocity and Soil Properties
Jin S. Chung ..... 63
Experimental Study on Hydraulic Performance of Hybrid Pickup Device of Manganese Nodule Collector
Sup Hong, Jong-Su Choi, Jin-Ha Kim and Chan-Kyu Yang ..... 69
Underwater Sand Mining System for Shallow Waters
C.R. Deepak, M. Pugazhaandi, S. Paul, M.A. Shajahan, G. Janakiraman, M.A. Atmanand, K. Annamalai, R. Jeyamani, M. Ravindran, E. Schulte, J. Panthel, H. Grebe and W. Schwarz ..... 78
The First Phase of the IOM Survey Program According to Plan of Work for Exploration in the Area
R. Kotlinski and V. Stoyanova ..... 87
Mode of Occurrence of Iron-Manganese Crusts on Inactive Seamounts in the Northwestern Pacific Back-Arc Setting
Akira Usui, Osamu Ishizuka and Makoto Yuasa ..... 91
Multibeam Echosounder Pseudo Sidescan Images as a Tool for Manganese Nodule Exploration
V.N. Kodagali and B. Chakraborty ..... 97
The Implementation Agreement and Indian Interests
B. Vijay Kumar ..... 105
Summary of the Japanese Environmental Study for Deep-sea Mining
Satoru Okubo ..... 111
Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX): Achievements and Applications
Rahul Sharma ..... 118
Vertical Distribution of Meiobenthos in Relation to Geotechnical Properties of Deep-Sea Sediment in the IOM Pioneer Area (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, NE Pacific)
Teresa Radziejewska and Igor Modlitba ..... 126
Sedimentological Impacts of INDEX Experiment
A.B. Valsangkar, N.V. Ambre and Maria Rodrigues ..... 131
Effect of Benthic Disturbance on Geotechnical Characteristics of Sediments from Nodule Mining Area in the Central Indian Basin
N.H. Khadge ..... 138
Baseline Studies and Evaluation of Effects of Surface Discharge of Deepsea Mining -INDEX Area
S.N. de Souza and S.D. Sardessai ..... 145
Environmental Impact of Suspended Tailings Discharge During Mining Nodules
Jianxin Xia and Ning Yang ..... 152
Large-Scale Impact of Manganese Nodule Mining in the Pacific Numerical Simulations of the Dispersion of Tailings
S. Rolinski ..... 156
Environmental Study on the Deepsea Mining of Manganese Nodules in the Northeastern Tropical Pacific: Modeling the Sediment-Laden Negative Buoyant Flow
T. Doi, K. Nakata, M. Kubota and S. Aoki ..... 163
Intercomparison Between Aanderaa and Potok Current Meters Deployed During INDEX Programme
A.A. Fernandes, S. Pednekar and P. Vethamony ..... 169
Holothurians as Indicators for Recolonisation Processes in Environmental Assessments
Hartmut Bluhm ..... 177
Biological Results of JET Project: An Overview
Yoshihisa Shirayama ..... 185
Immediate Response of Meio and Macrobenthos to Disturbance Caused by Benthic Disturber
B.S. Ingole, Z.A. Ansari, S.G.P. Matondkar and N. Rodrigues ..... 191
Validation of EIA Sampling Methods—Bacterial and Biochemical Analyses
Sheelu G., P.A. Loka Bharati, Shanta Nair, C. Raghukumar and C. Mohandass ..... 198
Surface Meteorological Conditions at Benthic Disturbance Site - INDEX Area During Austral Winter 1997
A. Suryanarayana, V.S.N. Murty, V. Ramesh Babu and B.S. Beena ..... 203
Watermass Structure at Benthic Disturbance Site (INDEX Area) and Anticipated Mining Effects On Hydrophysical Properties
V. Ramesh Babu, V.S.N. Murty, A. Suryanarayana and B.S. Beena ..... 208
Current Structure and Kinetic Energy of The Abyssal Waters in the Central Indian Basin
V.S.N. Murty, V. Ramesh Babu, A. Suryanarayana and B.S. Beena ..... 216
The Smelting-Rusting-Solvent Extracting Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Polymetallic Nodules
Zhong Xiang, He Zequan, Shen Yujun, Mao Yongjun, Qu Shuguang and Li Xianbai ..... 227
An Evaluation of Mineral Processing Experimental Data for Cobalt-Rich Crust Development
Se Hun Park, Sohei Shimada and Yasuhiko Okano ..... 232
Processing of Polymetallic Sea Nodules : An Overview
Premchand and R.K. Jana ..... 237
Manganese Recovery from Leach Liquors / Residues Generated during Hydrometallurgical Processing of Manganese Nodules
K. Sanjay, T. Subbaiah, S. Anand and R.P. Das ..... 246
Design of Flexible Configuration Nodule Processing Pilot Plants In The Context Of Evolving Metal Markets
P.K. Sen and T.R.P. Singh ..... 253
Studies on Removal of Impurities from Ocean Nodules Leach Liquor by Solvent Extraction
K. Bhattacharya, M.F. Fonseca, R. Sadanandam, S.K. Tangri and A.K. Suri ..... 260
Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Iron, Copper, Cobalt and Nickel in Ocean Nodule Leach Liquor
M.V. Rane, K. Srikant, N.K. Menon, R. Sadanandam, S.K. Tangri and A.K. Suri ..... 265
Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt Values from Various Sources
I.G. Sharma, A. C. Bidaye, P.R. Menon, P.P.Shukla and A.K. Suri ..... 268
Mining System with Free Swimming Pick-Up Device and Dose Test of Environment Assessment
Ning Yang